Dokumentasjon

Haien er en av de eldste artene som svømmer i havet. At haien har overlevd det meste skyldes muligens haiens unike imunforsvar. Haiolje inneholder virkestoffer du ikke finner i andre maritime oljer. Forskning viser nå at disse stoffene er noe av det mest effektive du kan benytte for å bygge opp et effektivt og sterkt forsvarsverk i kroppen din. Haien er også det eneste dyret hvor man enda ikke har funnet spor av kreft.

Moderne forskning på haiolje begynte i 1906 da den Japanske Dr. Tsujimoto forsket på oljens unike egenskaper. Han fant at den inneholdt store mengder umettede fettsyrer med spessielle egenskaper. Dette ble siden bekreftet av den sveitsiske nobelprisvinneren Calour.

Det har blitt publisert en rekke vitenskapelige studier som underbygger haioljens unike egenskaper. Noen av disse finner du her:

Dokumentasjonsliste.

Bakes, M.J. and Nichols, P.D. (1995). Lipid, fatty acid and squalene composition of liver oil from six species of deep-sea sharks collected in southern Australian waters. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 110B, 267-275.

Batista, I. and Nunes, M.L. (1992). Characterisation of liver oils. Fisheries Resarch 14, 329-334.

Benkendorff, K., Davis, A.R., Rogers, C.N. and Bremner, J.B. (2005). Free fatty acids and sterols in the benthic spawn of aquatic molluscs, and their associated antimicrobial properties. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 316 (1):29-44.

Bhargava P, Marshall JL, Dahut W, Rizvi N, Trocky N, Williams JI, Hait H, Song S, Holroyd KJ and Hawkins

MJ (2001). A Phase I Pharmacokinetic Study of Squalamine, a Novel Antiangiogenic Agent, in Patients with Advanced Cancers. Clinical Cancer Research 7, 3912-3919.

Borch-Jensen C, Magnussen MP and Mollerup J (1997). Capillary Supercritical Fluid Chromatographic Analysis of Shark Liver Oils. JAOCS 74, 497-503.

Bordier CG, Sellier N, Foucault AP and Le Goffic F (1994). Characterization and Purification of Fatty Acid Metyl Esters from the Liver Oil of the Deep-sea Shark (Centrophorus squamosus) by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Counter current Chromatography. Chromatographia 39,

Canty, D.J (2001). Lecithin and Choline: New roles for old nutrients. Handbook of Neutraceuticals and

Functional Foods, Chapter 26.

Ciulla, T.A., Criswell, M.H., Danis, R.P., Williams, J.I., Mclane, M.P. and Holroyd, K.J. (2003). Squalamine lactate reduces choroidal neovascularization in laser-injury model in the rat. Retina 23, 808-814.

Choucair, B., Dherbomez, M., Roussakis, C. and El kihel, L. (2004). Synthesis of 7a and 7bspermidinylcholesterol, squalamine analogues. Bioorganic & Medical Chemistry Letters 14, 4213-4216.

Deprez, P.P., Volkmann, J.K. and Davenport, S.R. (1990). Squalene Content and neutral Lipid Composition of Livers from Deep- sea Sharks Caught in Tasmanian Waters. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 41, 375-387.

Fjørtoft KL and Kjerstad M (2001). Marknadsutvikling for djuphavsartar i samband med Hatton Bank toktet 1999. Møreforsking rapport Å0107 (in norwegian).

Genaidy, M., Kazi, A.A., Peyman, G.A., Passos-Machado, E., Farahat, H.G., Williams, J.I., Holroyd, K.J. and Blake, D.A. (2002). Effect of squalamine on iris neovascularization in monkeys. Retina 22, 772-778.

Genaera Corporation, Press release August 4, 2003: Genaera Reports Squalamine improves vision in age related macular degeneration.

Genaera Corporation, Press release June 7, 2004: Genaera presents updated phase II lung cancer clinical trial results at ASCO.

Gurr, M.I., Harwood, J.L., Frain, K.N. (2002). Lipid Biochemistry, an introduction. 5th edition. Blackwell science. ISBN 0-632-05409-3

Hao, D., Hammons, L.A., Eckhardt, S.G., Patnaik, A., Takimoto, C.H., Schwartz, G.H., Goetz, A.D., Tolcher, A.W., McCreery, H.A., Mamun, K., Williams, J.I., Holroyd, K.J. and Rowinsky, E.K. (2003). A phase I and Pharmacokinetic study of squalamine, an aminosterol anhiogenesis inhibitor. Clinical Cancer Research 9, 2465-2471.

Hauss T, Dante S, Dencher N and Haines T (2002). Squalane is in the midplane of the lipid bilayer: implications for it’s function as a proton permeability barrier. Biochimica et biophysica Acta 1556, 149-154.

Hayashi, K. and Takagi, T. (1981). Distribution of squalene and diacyl glyceryl ethers in the different tissues of deep sea shark, Dalatias lichia. Bulletin of Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 47, 281-288.

Herbst, R.S., Hammond, L.A., Carbone, D.P., Tran, H.T., Holroyd, K.J., Desai, A., Williams, J.I., Bekele, B.N.,Hait, H., Allgood, V., Solomon, S. and Schiller, J.H. (2003). A Phase I/II Trial of continuous five-day infusion of squalamine lactate (MSI-1256F) plus carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced non-small lung cancer. Clinical Cancer Research 9, 4108-4115.

Hernández-Pérez, M., Gallego, R.M.M., Alayón, P.J.P. and Hernandéz, A.B. (1997). Squalene content in livers from deep-sea sharks caught in Canary Island waters. Mer. Freshwater Res. 48, 573-576.

Kikuchi K, Bernard EM, Sadownik A, Regen SL and Armstrong D. (1997). Antimicrobial Activities of

Squalamine Mimics. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 41, 1433-1438.

Li, D., Williams, J. and Pietras, R. (2002). Squalamine and cisplain block angiogenesis and growth of human ovarian cancer cells with or without HER-2 gene overexpression. Oncogene 21, 2805-2814.

Moore KS, Wehrli S, Roder H, Rogers M, Forrest JN, McCrimmon D and Zasloff M. (1993). Squalamine: An aminosterol antibiotic from the shark. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 1354-1358.

Navarro-Garcia, G., Pacheco-Aguilar, R., Vallejo-Cordova, B., Ramirez-Suarez, J.C. and Bolanos, A. (2000).Lipid Composition of the Liver Oil of Shark Species from the Caribbean and Gulf of California Waters. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 13 (5):791-798.

Navarro-Garcia, G., Pacheco-Aguilar, R., Bringas-Alvarado, L. and Ortega-Garcia, J. (2004). Characterization of the lipid composition and natural antioxidants in the liver oil of Dasyatis brevis and Gymnura marmorata rays. Food Chemistry 87 (1):89-96. NEO-Sensitabs 2004: Susceptibility testing, user guide. 17th Ed. 2004

Rao MN, Shinnar AE, Noecker LA, Chao TL, Feibush B, Snyder B, Sharkansky I, Sarkahian A, Zhang X, Jones SR, Kinney WA and Zasloff M. (2000). Aminosterols from the Dogfish shark Squalus acanthias. J. Nat. Prod.63, 631-635.

Remme JF, Synnes M, Kjerstad M, Økland, HMW, Emblem W, Hellevik AH, Stoknes IS (2003). Utilization of selected deep sea species. Chemical characterisation, raw material properties, value added products and novel compounds. Møreforsking rapport Å0323.

Salmonowicz, J. and Krawczak-Krogulecka, W. (1981). Possibilities for Complex Use Liver Oil of Some Species of Sharks. Zeszyty Problemowe Postepow Nauk Rolniczych 211, 207-210.

Sargent, J.R., Gatten, R.R. and McIntosh, R. (1973). The distribution of neutral lipids in shark tissues. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 53, 649-656.

Selinsky, B.S., Zhou, Z., Fotjik, K.G., Jones, S.R., Dollahon, N.R. and Shinnar, A.E. (1998). The aminosterol antibiotic squalamine permeabilizes large unimellar phosholipid vesicles. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1370, 218-234.

Summers G and Wong R (1992). Cosmetic Products from Semi-refined Shark Liver Oil. INFOFISH

International 2, 55-58.

Tepe, B. Daferera, D. Sokmen, A. Sokmen, M. and Mischos Polissiou (2003). Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil and various extracts of Salvia tomentosa Miller (Lamiaceae). Food Chemistry 90 (2005)333-340.

McLane M. (2001). A spermidine-coupled cholesterol metabolite from the shark with potent appetite suppressant and antidiabetic properties. International Journal of Obesity 25, 689-697

Zhang X, Rao MN, Jones SR, Shao B, Feibush P, McGuigan M, Tzodikov N, Feibush, B, Sharkansky I, Snyder B, Mallis LM, Sarkahian A, Wilder S, Turse JE, Kinney WA, Kjærsgaard HJ and Michalak RS (1998). Synthesis of Squalamine Utilizing a Readily Accessible Spermidine Equivalent. J. Org. Chem. 63, 8599-8603